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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Observational data indicate that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are strongly positively associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) whilst the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is strongly inversely associated, with additional associations being observed for other lipid parameters such as triglycerides, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). This has led to an interest in the development of a range of lipid intervention therapies. The most widely used of these interventions are statins, but even with intensive statin therapy some groups of patients remain at significant residual cardiovascular (CV) risk. In addition, some people are intolerant of statin therapy. In these circumstances, additional therapeutic agents may be needed. This review considers the evidence behind and the pros and cons of such additional agents.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





161 - 170


Cardiovascular Diseases, Disease Management, Global Health, Humans, Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors, Incidence, Risk Factors