Smoking and major depressive disorder in Chinese women.
He Q., Yang L., Shi S., Gao J., Tao M., Zhang K., Gao C., Yang L., Li K., Shi J., Wang G., Liu L., Zhang J., Du B., Jiang G., Shen J., Zhang Z., Liang W., Sun J., Hu J., Liu T., Wang X., Miao G., Meng H., Li Y., Hu C., Li Y., Huang G., Li G., Ha B., Deng H., Mei Q., Zhong H., Gao S., Sang H., Zhang Y., Fang X., Yu F., Yang D., Liu T., Chen Y., Hong X., Wu W., Chen G., Cai M., Song Y., Pan J., Dong J., Pan R., Zhang W., Shen Z., Liu Z., Gu D., Wang X., Liu Y., Liu X., Zhang Q., Li Y., Chen Y., Kendler KS., Wang X., Li Y., Flint J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors that contribute to smoking in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the clinical features in depressed smokers. METHODS: We examined the smoking status and clinical features in 6120 Han Chinese women with MDD (DSM-IV) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between clinical features of MDD and smoking status and between risk factors for MDD and smoking status. RESULTS: Among the recurrent MDD patients there were 216(3.6%) current smokers, 117 (2.0%) former smokers and 333(5.6%) lifetime smokers. Lifetime smokers had a slightly more severe illness, characterized by more episodes, longer duration, more comorbid illness (panic and phobias), with more DSM-IV A criteria and reported more symptoms of fatigue and suicidal ideation or attempts than never smokers. Some known risk factors for MDD were also differentially represented among smokers compared to non-smokers. Smokers reported more stressful life events, were more likely to report childhood sexual abuse, had higher levels of neuroticism and an increased rate of familial MDD. Only neuroticism was significantly related to nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Although depressed women smokers experience more severe illness, smoking rates remain low in MDD patients. Family history of MDD and environmental factors contribute to lifetime smoking in Chinese women, consistent with the hypothesis that the association of smoking and depression may be caused by common underlying factors.