Real-world tobacco cessation practice in China: findings from the prospective, nationwide multicenter China National Tobacco Cessation Cohort Study (CNTCCS)
Liu Z., Qin R., Hu XJ., Liu LJ., Xu SQ., Shi GC., Zhou H., Bai J., Zhang CM., Qi Y., Zhou W., Lan SH., Tong J., Su TS., Wang Q., Yang XY., Sun DJ., Zhu LM., Chen XY., Chen H., Xie YP., Xiao ZH., Chen YB., Zhao B., Wu QG., Chen WL., Li DY., Liu H., Cheng AQ., Cui ZY., Zhao L., Li JX., Wei XW., Zhou XM., Su Z., Chung KF., Chen ZM., Xiao D., Wang C.
Background: Tobacco cessation is proven to be the most effective and cost-effective strategy for smokers to reduce their risk of smoking-related disease and premature death. Providing effective, efficient, safe, and patient-centred tobacco cessation treatment to reach those who need them is a significant challenge. To date, only a few nationwide studies in China have assessed the overall clinical care practice and treatment outcome of tobacco cessation. Methods: This a prospective, nationwide, multicenter, cohort study covering all Eastern China, Northwest China, Central China, North China, Southwest China, Northeast China, and South China. Participants who were current smokers aged 18–85 years attending clinic for smoking cessation were included. All the participants were treated with 3-month cessation treatment and followed up for 3 months. Data were collected prospectively using online system. The primary outcome was 7-day point abstinence rate at 24 weeks, validated biochemically by an expired carbon monoxide level of less than 10 ppm. The participants lost to follow-up or not providing validation were included as non-abstainers. Findings: A representative sample of 3557 participants were recruited and 2943 participants were included into this analysis. These participants had mean age of 53.05 years, and 94.8% were males, with 75.8% showing symptoms of tobacco dependence. A total of 965 (32.8%) participants were treated with Bupropion + behavioural counselling, followed by 935 (31.8%) with behavioural counselling, 778 (26.4%) with Varenicline + behavioural counselling, 135 (4.6%) with alternative treatments + behavioural counselling, and 130 (4.4%) with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) + behavioural counselling. After 3-month treatment and 3-month follow-up, 21.74% of the participants quit smoking at 24 weeks. In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, quitting smoking was significantly associated with female, higher socioeconomic status, poor health condition, different treatment received, and less smoking intensity. The tobacco cessation treatment varied widely across different areas of China. In particular, the areas with higher usage of cessation medication were associated with better cessation treatment outcome. Interpretation: The CNTCCS is the first large-scale nationwide cohort study of smoking cessation in China. Rich data collected from this prospective cohort study provided the opportunity to evaluate the clinical practice of tobacco cessation treatment in China. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Initiative for Innovative Medicine (CAMS 2021-I2M-1-010), Heilongjiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Program (2022ZXJ03C02), and National Key R&D Program of China (grant no. 2017YFC1309400).