Socioeconomic variations determine the clinical presentation, aetiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis: a prospective cohort study from the ESC-EORP EURO-ENDO (European Infective Endocarditis) registry.
Sengupta SP., Prendergast B., Laroche C., Furnaz S., Ronderos R., Almaghraby A., Asch FM., Blechova K., Zaky H., Strahilevitz J., Dworakowski R., Miyasaka Y., Sebag I., Izumi C., Axler O., Jamiel A., Philip M., Campos Vieira ML., Lancellotti P., Habib G.
AimsInfective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. We sought to determine how socioeconomic factors might influence its epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation and management, and outcome, in a large international multicentre registry.Methods and resultsThe EurObservational Programme (EORP) of the European Society of Cardiology EURO-ENDO (European Infective Endocarditis) registry comprises a prospective cohort of 3113 adult patients admitted for IE in 156 hospitals in 40 countries between January 2016 and March 2018. Patients were separated in three groups, according to World Bank economic stratification [group 1: high income (75.6%); group 2: upper-middle income (15.4%); group 3: lower-middle income (9.1%)]. Group 3 patients were younger [median age (interquartile range, IQR): group 1, 66 (53-75) years; group 2, 57 (41-68) years; group 3, 33 (26-43) years; P < 0.001] with a higher frequency of smokers, intravenous drug use, and human immunodeficiency virus infection (all P < 0.001) and presented later [median (IQR) days since symptom onset: group 1, 12 (3-35); group 2, 19 (6-54); group 3, 31 (12-62); P < 0.001] with a higher likelihood of developing congestive heart failure (13.6%, 11.1%, and 22.6%, respectively; P < 0.001) and persistent fever (9.8%, 14.2%, and 27.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). Among 2157 (69.3%) patients with theoretical indication for cardiac surgery, surgery was performed less frequently in group 3 patients (75.5%, 76.8%, and 51.3%, respectively; P < 0.001), who also demonstrated the highest mortality (15.0%, 23.0%, and 23.7%, respectively; P < 0.001).ConclusionSocioeconomic factors influence the clinical profile of patients presenting with IE across the world. Despite younger age, patients from the poorest countries presented with more frequent complications and higher mortality associated with delayed diagnosis and lower use of surgery.