Psychometric evaluation of the 4C tinnitus management questionnaire for patients with tinnitus alone or tinnitus combined with hyperacusis.
Aazh H., Kartsonaki C., Moore BCJ.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a new questionnaire evaluating patients' confidence in managing their tinnitus, the 4C tinnitus management questionnaire (4C), which was designed to be used in the process of cognitive behavioural therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional based on patient records. STUDY SAMPLES: 99 consecutive patients who sought help for tinnitus (with or without hyperacusis) from an audiology clinic in the UK. Pure tone average (PTA) hearing thresholds, Uncomfortable Loudness Levels (ULLs), and responses to the 4C questionnaire, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and Screening for Anxiety and Depression in Tinnitus (SAD-T) questionnaire were gathered from the records of patients held at the audiology department. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for the 4C was 0.91, indicating high internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution. Discriminant validity was supported by weak correlations between 4C scores and PTA across ears and ULLmin (the across-frequency average ULL for the ear with lower average ULL). Convergent validity was supported by moderate correlations between 4C scores and scores for the THI, HQ, and SAD-T. CONCLUSIONS: The 4C is an internally consistent questionnaire with high convergent and discriminant validity, which can be used to assess patients' confidence in managing their tinnitus.