Body-mass index, blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba: prospective study of 146,556 participants.
Armas Rojas NB., Lacey B., Soni M., Charles S., Carter J., Varona-Pérez P., Burrett JA., Martínez MC., Lorenzo-Vázquez E., Constantén SB., Taylor H., Sherliker P., Rigau JMM., Ross S., Massa MS., López OJH., Islam N., Morales MÁM., Alomá IA., Estupiñan FA., González MD., Muñoz NR., Asencio MC., Díaz-Diaz O., Iglesias-Marichal I., Emberson J., Peto R., Lewington S.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease accounts for about one-third of all premature deaths (ie, age =120 mmHg), diabetes, and BMI (>=22.5 kg/m2): 20 mmHg higher usual SBP about doubled cardiovascular mortality (RR 2.02, 95%CI 1.88-2.18]), as did diabetes (2.15, 1.95-2.37), and 10 kg/m2 higher usual BMI (1.92, 1.64-2.25). RR were similar in men and in women. The association with BMI and cardiovascular mortality was almost completely attenuated following adjustment for the mediating effect of SBP. Elevated SBP (>=120 mmHg), diabetes and raised BMI (>=22.5 kg/m2) accounted for 27%, 14%, and 16% of cardiovascular deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This large prospective study provides direct evidence for the effects of these major risk factors on cardiovascular mortality in Cuba. Despite comparatively low levels of these risk factors by international standards, the strength of their association with cardiovascular death means they nevertheless exert a substantial impact on premature mortality in Cuba.